How do I change the number of open files limit in Linux? You could always try doing a ulimit - n 2. This will only reset the limit for your current shell and the number you specify must not exceed the hard limit. Each operating system has a different hard limit setup in a configuration file. For instance, the hard open file limit on Solaris can be set on boot from /etc/system.
HOWTO: Set Resource Controls Using Projects Instead of ulimit(1) lildude /howto-set-resource-controls-using-projects-instead-of-ulimit 2011-08-15T14:56:20+01:00. Many applications, like Oracle 11g, need larger than default. Closed as off topic by casperOne Aug 17 '12 at 2:01. Questions on Stack Overflow are expected to relate to programming within the scope defined by the community. Consider editing the question or leaving comments for. The mountall command mounts all file systems that have the mount at boot field in the /etc/vfstab file set to yes. It can also be used anytime after booting. Unmounting File Systems. A file system can be unmounted with the. The key rule with Solaris optimization is 'do no harm'. Learning the ropes is an important first step. See the Sun Performance and Tuning book and consider taking Suns Solaris performance tuning course.
Resource limits on UNIX systems (ulimit)Please read the article Resource limits on UNIX systems (ulimit) More on UnixMantra. The most frequent changes are limited to the number of file descriptors, because the socket API uses file descriptors for handling internet connectivity. You may want to look at the hard limit of filehandles available to you.
Soft Resource Limit File Descriptors Solaris 10
On OS X, this same data must be set in /etc/sysctl. Under Linux, these settings are often in /etc/limits. There are two kinds of limits: soft limits are simply the currently enforced limitshard limits mark the maximum value which cannot be exceeded by setting a soft limit. Soft limits could be set by any user while hard limits are changeable only by root. Limits are a property of a process. They are inherited when a child process is created so system- wide limits should be set during the system initialization in init scripts and user limits should be set during user login for example by using pam_limits. There are often defaults set when the machine boots.
So, even though you may reset your ulimit in an individual shell, you may find that it resets back to the previous value on reboot. You may want to grep your boot scripts for the existence ulimit commands if you want to change the default.
Solaris Performance Tuning. The key rule with Solaris optimization is "do no harm". Learning.
See the. Sun Performance and Tuning book and consider taking Suns Solaris. Don't apply recipes without understanding the mechanisms behind them. In complex cases use DTrace: DTrace is new tracing facility built into Solaris 1. It improved the. ability to identify system problems and bottlenecks. It is a huge system.
Solaris kernel instrumentation for achieving this functionality. The tool is script.
It uses D - the DTrace language which is similar. AWK. No other OS is currently even close to Solaris 1. Introducing new problem during misguided optimization is too frequent. Remember that a couple of hours of additional downtime. In most cases "educated guess" about performance bottlenecks is wrong.
The maximum limit of open files per process can be limited by setting a hard limit and/or a soft limit. The hard limit can be set by the system administrator and be decreased by any user, whereas the soft limit can be set by. I normally use pam_limits.so and /etc/security/limits.conf to set ulimits on file size, CPU time, etc. for the regular users logging in to my server running Ubuntu. What is the best way of doing something similar with Solaris. [TIP] Power Manager. (즉 전원관리). Solaris 2.6에서는 'powerd' daemon이 실행되어 일정 시간동안 작업을 하지 않으면 시스템이 자동 down되도록 지정할 수 있다. 이 Power Manager는 OS.
Only careful measurement can reveal the real reason and without it tuning. The useful first step in understanding. Collecting and checkpointing the accounting data. At the same time. See. Processing Accounting Data into Workloads (October 1.
Adrian Cockcroft. In many cases performance issues are resolved using better (and often. Using 5- 7 year servers with Solaris in many cases.
Moving. from Sparc to Intel is also should be viewed as optimization option as price. Intel boxes is better and for $7. K you can buy box that on. SPEC metrics beats more expensive Ultra. Sparc boxes. If disk subsystem. SAN can improve I/O performance quite dramatically. While bottlenecks can occur on practically any component of the server.
I/O, memory and CPU. But please keep in mind that they. Typically overload periods are brief and limited to "rush hours". In. such cases limiting or offloading other activities on the server might improve. Solaris blueprints contains several very good materials about performance. I especially recommend blueprints written by Adrian Cockcroft. Jon Hill and Kemer Thomson This article presents the rationale for formal system performance management.
It. describes four classes of systems monitoring tools and their uses. The. article discusses the issues of tool integration, "best- of- breed versus. Static Performance Tuning (May 2. Richard Elling. Richard discusses a class of problems that can affect system performance. Fast Oracle Parallel Exports on Sun Enterprise[tm] Servers. March 2. 00. 0) - by Stan Stringfellow - Special to Sun Blue. Prints On. Line. Gives a script that performs very fast Oracle database exports by taking.
SMP machines. This script can be. Scenario Planning - Part 1 (February 2. Adrian Cockcroft. Discusses scenario planning techniques to help predict latent demand. In this part 1 he explains how to simplify. Scenario Planning - Part 2 (March 2. Adrian Cockcroft.
Presents part two of the Scenario Planning article and explains how. Observability (December 1. Adrian Cockcroft.
Discusses Capacity Planning and Performance Management techniques. Processing Accounting Data into Workloads (October 1. Adrian Cockcroft. Information about Solaris operating system accounting to include code. Like any modern OS Solaris includes several types of filesystems with. UFS, ZFS, Vx. FS (The Veritas filesystem).
NFS. is typically use as netwrk filesystem and tmpfs(which. A file system stores named data sets. Attributes include things like ownership, access rights. Advanced filesystems along.
OS/2 HPFS. provides user- defined attributes. We can. Solaris. Local file systems. They are usually based on disks or other. Local filesystem are the most. Examples of. local file systems on Solaris are UFS, ZFS, and VERITAS File System. Vx. FS). Shared file systems.
Classic shared filesystem is NFS. Most. shared file systems require a supporting local file system on the file. NAS) appliance. Special file systems. The most important in Solaris is.
DOS which. hosts files in virtual memory. Cache. FS is another example. Media- specific file systems. They are associated in some. The most common example. UDF),the file system format found on most.
DVDs. (It is certainly possible to use a DVD, or especially a DVD- RW/DVD+RW. DVD, such as UFS). Other. media- specific file systems are ISO9. ROM file system format). PCFS. Microsoft FAT- 3.
Windows machine), but in. Solaris, it is effectively a media- specific file system associated. USB drives. Pseudo file systems.
These are actually abstractions of data. Because filesystems are a convenient and powerful mechanism for. Solaris is built on a surprising number of pseudo. Probably the best known of these is procfs, which provides. Discussion below is based on the article by Brian Wong.
Design, Features, and Applicability of Solaris File Systems. Every Solaris system includes UFS. While it is definitely old and lacking. The UFS. design center handles typical files found in office and business automation.
The basic I/O characteristics favor huge numbers of small, cachable. This profile is common in most workloads, such as software development. Mail servers, DNS servers, web sites. When designing your server filesystems with UFS filesystems, pay attention.
Mapping. partitions to separate pairs of physical disk to minimize load of each pair. If you're running a webserver, for example - - it would benefit performance. You. might configure Webserver partition with both the "noatime" and "logging". This would offload requests to a separate. SCSI controller channel. A webservers have mostly a read- requests load and the volume of data.
RAID 1. 0 can be used. Software mirroring is an additional overhead. In no way you should. For small web sites (let's say up to 4. G) it make sense to use.
That means that also you pages will be cached. The. drawback is that you might need to order more memory for the server increasing. But it is a better (and cheaper) deal then using SANs. You just. need to load the content when server reboots. G the time to reboot the server became somewhat long but few websites are. In any case it make sense to use entire drive for your webserver.
New USB storage might have read performance comparable. Logs from Web server can be written on system drive as the volume is. You can also tweak the ufs.
HW". and "ufs_LW" options in /etc/system. See the. Sun Performance and Tuning book (p. Suns Solaris. performance tuning course. In addition to the basic UFS, there are two variants, logging UFS (LUFS). UFS that was used in Solaris 7. All three versions share the same. Older version of UFS up to Solaris 9 have a nominal maximum filesystem size.
This limit was raised to 1. Solaris 1. 0 OS. The maximum size file is slightly smaller, about 1. There is no reasonable limit to the number. UFS file. systems. The major differences between the three UFS variants. Metadata is information that the file system. Other. less obvious, but possibly more important metadata are the location of the.
Getting this metadata wrong would not only mean that the affected file. UFS takes the simplest approach to assuring metadata integrity: it writes. The time and expense of the fsck operation is proportional.
Large file systems with millions of small files can take tens of hours. Logging file systems were developed to avoid both the ongoing. Logging uses the two- phase commit technique to ensure that. Logging implementations store.
In the event of a crash, metadata integrity is assured by inspecting. I/O operations from applications. The size of the. log is dependent on the amount of changing metadata, not the size of the. Because the amount of pending metadata is quite small, usually. Replaying the log against the master is therefore a very fast operation. Once the metadata integrity is guaranteed, the fsck operation becomes a.
Note that for performance. The metatrans implementation was the first version of UFS to implement. It was built into Solstice Disk. Suite or Solaris Volume Manager. The metatrans implementation is limited to. Solaris 7 and was replaced by logging UFS (LUFS). Logging UFS was introduced into the Solaris 8 OS but unfortunately was.
The reason for that was performance. So in reality logging started be used in typical installation only with. Solaris 1. 0, where it is enabled by default.
Sun recommends using logging. Solaris 8 but this recommendation are largely ignored. This is.
I/O at all. Performance Impact of Logging. One of the most confusing issues associated with logging file systems.
UFS, for some reason) is the effect that. First, and most importantly, logging has absolutely. The performance of metadata operations is another story, and it is not. The log works by writing pending changes to the log. When the master. is safely updated, the log entry is marked as committed, meaning that it. This. algorithm means that metadata changes that are accomplished primarily when. I/O operations as a non- logging implementation.
The net impact of this aspect. I/O operations going to storage. Typically, this has no real impact on overall performance, but in the case. In this case, throughput is not measured. If the utilization of the underlying storage is less than approximately. On the positive side of the ledger, the most common impact on performance.
These. cases occur only when metadata updates are issued very rapidly, such as. Without logging, the system is required to force. When the file system is logging. This results in a 5. I/O, and obvious performance improvements result.
The following table illustrates these results. The times are given in. Times are the average of five runs. These tests were run on Solaris 8 7/0. The tar test consists of extracting 7. Although a significant amount of data is.
Logging is five times faster. The rm test removes the 7. It is also dominated by metadata updates and is an astonishing 3. On the other hand, the dd write test creates a single 1 gigabyte file. Reading the created file.
Both tests. use large block sizes (1 megabyte per I/O) to optimize throughput of the. Another feature present in most of the local file systems is the use. I/O. UFS, Vx. FS, and QFS all have forms of this feature, which. I/O. At first glance, it might seem that caching is a.